Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics, 21 (3), P. 294-306 (2018).

Be-ion implanted p-n InSb diode for infrared applications. Modeling, fabrication and characterization
V.V. Korotyeyev * , V.O. Kochelap, S.V. Sapon, B.M. Romaniuk, V.P. Melnik, O.V. Dubikovskyi, T.M. Sabov

Department of Theoretical Physics, V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 41, prospect Nauky, 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine

Abstract. Transport theory for modeling the electric characteristics of high-quality p-n diodes has been developed. This theory takes into account a non-uniform profile of p- doping, finite thickness of the quasi-neutral regions and possible non-uniformity of the bulk recombination coefficient. The theory is based on related solutions of the Poisson equation, drift-diffusion equation and continuity equation with a generation-recombination term taking into account the simple band-to-band generation/recombination model. We have ascertained that the non-uniform profile of p-doping can lead to formation of p-n junctions with a specific two-slope form of the electrostatic barrier and two regions with the high built-in electric fields. We have found that at strong p + -doping the band structure of the InSb p-n junction has the form that can facilitate the emergence of additional mechanisms of current flow due to the tunneling and avalanche effects at the reverse bias. Using the literary data of the electron and hole lifetimes in InSb at cryogenic temperatures, we have found that the coefficient of bulk recombination can have an essential spatial dependence and considerably increases in the space charge region of p-n diode. The theory was applied to our analysis of p-n InSb diodes with p + -doping by using Be-ion implantation performed in ISP NASU. The theory predicts optimal conditions for detection of infrared emission. The technological process of fabrication, processing and testing has been described in details. Theoretically, it has been found that for parameters of the fabricated diodes and at 77 K the dark currents limited by diffusion and generation-recombination mechanisms should be less than 0.1 μA at the inverse bias of the order of 0.1 V. The measured diode’s I-V characteristics were expected to have strong asymmetry, however, dark currents are by one order larger than those predicted by theory. The latter can be associated with additional current mechanisms, namely: tunneling and avalanche effects.

Keywords: p-n diode, ion implantation, InSb.

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